Bartleby Snopes Writing Blog

Becoming a Better Writer

Month: March 2014

Take Your Writing from Anecdote to Story

The most common note I make when voting “no” on a submission is this – anecdote, not story. It would appear that many writers don’t know the difference. I know I didn’t – not when I entered my MFA program anyway. After three intense years of studying craft I finally got it … with a little help from Aristotle and my professors.

So what distinguishes story from anecdote? Although plot isn’t the only thing, it is the big one. What is plot? Here is the most helpful explanation that I’m aware of, which you may have heard as well:

No plot: The king died, and then the queen died.
Plot: The king died, and then the queen died of grief.

When I think of plot in short fiction I picture a line of dominoes, each knocking the one before it down – cause and effect. The classic study of this phenomenon can be found in Aristotle’s Poetics. Although written about drama, the principles outlined there have been a tremendous help to countless fiction writers. Pick up a copy – along with Oedipus Rex, which you will need as well – and give both a read. Preferably Oedipus followed by the relevant section of Poetics followed by Oedipus again. Although you won’t find many plots as rigid as that found in the Sophocles appearing on our site (or in the recent BASS, for that matter), studying all of this should help you see how satisfying the plots that do appear there really are.

Here at Bartleby Snopes we don’t need a structure as formal as that found in Greek tragedy, nor do we need a virtually uncountable number of dominoes to fall at breakneck speed like they do in a book such as The Da Vinci Code. But something really should cause something else. A couple of dominoes. Three. Maybe four. You get the picture.

So that’s plot – the most important thing that distinguishes a story from an anecdote. But what else? Most pieces that get the dreaded anecdote, not story comment from me also lack a beginning, middle and end. This sounds like plot, and it is related; certainly there is a very distinct beginning, middle and end that arise out of plot in Oedipus. But we see some submissions that, even though they have a plot, wander around way too much. They lack a natural progression. Even seemingly plotless stories like Woolf’s Kew Gardens and Turgenev’s Bezhin Meadow feature a highly satisfying progression.

Finally, a few words about endings – you need one. If you want to take your narrative from anecdote to story, anyway. Many of the pieces we reject as anecdote just fizzle out. Or the writer attempts to end them by throwing something big in there, like a violent death, that fails because it did not arise out of the narrative we’ve been given. The ending should, as I just said, and I’ll repeat it because this is important, arise out of the narrative. As is often said, the perfect ending should be surprising, and yet feel inevitable. It won’t feel inevitable if it doesn’t follow naturally from that which has come before it. I don’t need the kind of button you’d see at the end of one of Shakespeare’s sonnets, but I need something. And if I find a little insight into the human condition there, all the better.

So that is my down and dirty on anecdote versus story. Hopefully some of you will find this helpful. It has certainly helped me to give this topic some thought.

Playing the Submissions Game: A Guide to Guidelines

If you are planning to submit anything to a literary magazine or publisher, it’s essential to play by their rules. Some publishers claim to receive ten thousand submissions per month. While you may think that adding a unique touch is necessary to make your manuscript stand out, your deviation from the guidelines will more likely result in your work instantly being thrown out.

When it comes to submitting to a literary magazine, the most important thing you can do is follow the guidelines. Of course, by “guidelines” I mean a wide range of things, not just the rules about formatting and submission method describe on the magazine’s website. The guidelines of a literary magazine include both stated and unstated rules you need to follow when you submit. Failing to follow just one of them might mean you never get out of the slush pile.

I break down guidelines into five categories: Length, content, format, method, and information. It might be easy to say that “content” is the most important of these. After all, good writing should trump the fact that you didn’t double space. However, your great story might never be read if you don’t follow the conventions the magazine lays out for you.

Here is an overview of each category:


Most literary magazines will provide either a maximum word count or a word count range. Some magazines may allow flexibility, but others will have a very firm word count. The best way to figure out if a magazine will consider your story that is 300 words too long is to look at the archives and see if they always stick to the length requirements. While some places like McSweeney’s Internet Tendency are very precise about their length preferences (you should probably take their preference for 742-word pieces with a grain of salt), other magazines are a bit of a mystery.

A good habit to follow when you are submitting is actually reading some of the work a magazine has published. Reading what they publish gives you a sens of what they really want. If they are calling for 1-3000 words and you don’t see anything less than 150 words on the site, then maybe you don’t want to send in your 25-word masterpiece. Occasionally you will find a magazine with no length restrictions. Again, browse the contents and see what lengths they prefer. If all their stories are under 2000 words, don’t send in your 15,000-word epic.


Content is arguably the most important aspect about your submission. After all, even if you follow all the other rules, you’ll still get rejected if your story is bad or doesn’t fit. Content refers to the style and aesthetic of your story. It’s the type of writing (prose, poetry, etc), the genre, the subject, and so much more. The amount of direction a magazine gives you regarding the content you should submit will vary. Some magazines may be specific regarding what they want to see, and others may give you a list of things they don’t want to see.

If the guidelines specifically tell you what not to send, then don’t send it. At Bartleby Snopes Literary Magazine, we are pretty clear in our guidelines, and we do offer submitters with a list of turn offs. However, we still frequently see stories that directly align with our turn offs. This blatant disregard for our submission policies has yet to win anyone an acceptance.

As with length, the best way to determine the types of stories a particular venue publishes is to actually read the stories in that publication. Almost every literary magazine provides free stories. If the only way to read the magazine is to buy a copy, then buy a copy. If you don’t want to buy a copy of the magazine, then you probably don’t really want to be in that particular publication.

Choosing the right content to send a publisher is the most difficult part about submitting, but it’s worth taking the extra time to figure out what they really want. If you don’t make a serious attempt to learn the aesthetic of a magazine, then you are just wasting everyone’s time. Ultimately, you want to submit a piece that is a good match for that magazine’s tastes (but that doesn’t mean you should try to be a copy cat–avoid sending a story that is exactly like something they already published).


Following the requested format won’t guarantee acceptance, but it might ward off instant rejection. Some magazines will immediately reject a piece that doesn’t conform to their guidelines (if you send us a story that isn’t double-spaced, we will send it right back). Some publications may be very specific in format requirements, while others may not care at all. If you want to play it safe, always prepare your story in standard manuscript format. You can always make adjustments as needed to meet the particular quirks of a magazine. As a writer, I’ve seen format guidelines that seem rather petty, but if you aren’t willing to play along, then don’t bother playing at all. Format guidelines may include:

  • Font
  • Text size
  • Margins
  • Spacing
  • Hard returns
  • Indentation
  • Headings/headers/titles/page numbers
  • Identifying/contact information

Getting a manuscript in the proper format generally only takes a few minutes, and it shows the editors that you actually read their guidelines. This can go a long way.


There are two main aspects to the method of submission. The first is the medium you use to submit (email, snail mail, submission manager, form on site). If the publication uses Submittable, don’t send an email. If they only accept snail mail, don’t send an email. Never contact an editor to ask if you can submit your work using a different way.

The second aspect of method refers to what you send. If you are emailing, do you send it as an attachment or in the body of the email? If you need to use an attachment, what type of file should you use (RTF, DOC, DOCX, PDF, etc)? Do whatever they say, no matter how archaic it sounds. Again, if you don’t want to put forth the effort to use the proper method, then don’t bother submitting.


The final aspect of your submission is often optional and can include a range of items: a cover letter, a bio, an author photo, and more. Be sure to follow the magazine’s policy and include any additional information they want. When it comes to literary magazines, your bio and cover letter rarely make a difference. Many editors don’t even look at these items before reading your submission. However, it’s always polite to at least include a brief cover letter that thanks the editors for taking the time to read your work—and make sure you don’t address the letter to the wrong magazine (this happens a lot more than you might think).

The Final Word on Submissions

If you are serious about having your work published, especially in “prestigious” venues, then you need to invest time into the submission process. Yes, it can be a pain and rather time consuming to follow all the different guidelines (wouldn’t it be so much easier if Duotrope and Submittable teamed up and gave us a batch submit option so we could send the same story to ALL the science fiction venues at once?), and some magazines do make some strange requests. As with almost anything else, when it comes to submitting your work, you will probably get out of it what you put into it. If you send out a lot of rushed submissions without doing your research, you will probably end up with a big stack of rejections. If you put time and effort into submitting your work, then you will likely walk away as a published author (at least eventually).

Coming Soon

This blog, presented by Bartleby Snopes Literary Magazine, will feature bi-weekly tips regarding writing, editing, submitting, publishing, and marketing.

Look for the first real post this weekend.